[144] This was followed by the first human spaceflight in 1961, when Yuri Gagarin was sent into orbit on Vostok 1. [60], The day-side magnetopause is compressed by solar-wind pressure—the subsolar distance from the center of the Earth is typically 10 Earth radii. They also create aurorae seen at high latitudes in an oval surrounding the geomagnetic poles. [28] The gas temperatures in outer space can vary widely. [78], The volume of interplanetary space is a nearly total vacuum, with a mean free path of about one astronomical unit at the orbital distance of the Earth. The present day shape of the universe has been determined from measurements of the cosmic microwave background using satellites like the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Here are some possible explanations of why you are dreaming of outer space. [113] The 1979 Moon Treaty turned the jurisdiction of all heavenly bodies (including the orbits around such bodies) over to the international community. [138] The expression outer space was used as an astronomical term by Alexander von Humboldt in 1845. For interstellar space to be something different, then there must be some defined boundary between the space near a star and the space in between stars. Definition of outer space written for English Language Learners from the Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary with audio pronunciations, usage examples, and count/noncount noun labels. The deep vacuum of intergalactic space is not devoid of matter, as it contains a few hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. [33] Cosmic rays can damage electronic components and pose a health threat to space travelers. Outer definition is - existing independent of mind : objective. The region outside Earth's atmosphere and extending out to just beyond the Moon's orbit, including the Lagrange points, is sometimes referred to as cislunar space.[68]. [122], In 1650, German scientist Otto von Guericke constructed the first vacuum pump: a device that would further refute the principle of horror vacui. In 1935, the U.S. Explorer II crewed balloon flight reached an altitude of 22 km (14 mi). Exposure to high-energy, ionizing cosmic rays can result in fatigue, nausea, vomiting, as well as damage to the immune system and changes to the white blood cell count. What made you want to look up outer space? Synonyms for outer space include cosmos, space, the cosmos, the universe, the solar system, celestial spaces, cosmic space, deep space, empty space and ether space. [67], Earth's gravity keeps the Moon in orbit at an average distance of 384,403 km (238,857 mi). [16], Outer space is the closest known approximation to a perfect vacuum. He's making a quiz, and checking it twice... Test your knowledge of the words of the year. [20] In spite of this, extinction, which is the absorption and scattering of photons by dust and gas, is an important factor in galactic and intergalactic astronomy. This pressure is high enough to prevent ebullism, but evaporation of nitrogen dissolved in the blood could still cause decompression sickness and gas embolisms if not managed. It forms a cavity in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy, with dense molecular clouds lying along the borders, such as those in the constellations of Ophiuchus and Taurus. [46][47] Swelling and ebullism can be reduced by containment in a pressure suit. Journey through this collection of over 100 celestial baby names – inspired by the galaxy, stars and constellations, planets and their moons, astronauts, space travel, and more. [12] The flat Universe, combined with the measured mass density of the Universe and the accelerating expansion of the Universe, indicates that space has a non-zero vacuum energy, which is called dark energy. Lesser symptoms include loss of body mass, nasal congestion, sleep disturbance, and puffiness of the face. When this happened, matter and energy became decoupled, allowing photons to travel freely through the continually expanding space. Moving an infrared telescope out past the dust increases its effectiveness. For the album, see, sfn error: no target: CITEREFUnited_States (, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, International Telecommunication Union responsible for radio communication, Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Timeline of knowledge about the interstellar and intergalactic medium, "Existence and nature of dark matter in the universe", Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, "Where does space begin? The distances to the nearest stars mean it would require new technological developments and the ability to safely sustain crews for journeys lasting several decades. [93] This material is called the intergalactic medium (IGM). The region where Earth's gravity remains dominant against gravitational perturbations from the Sun is called the Hill sphere. Besides, how many books can claim to feature portions of narrative from the perspective of an A.I.-equipped monkey possessed by a superpowerful consciousness from, That’s how Christensen’s got involved in the Proxima b mission, which requires technology that that could function as long as 200 years in, For the first time, NASA has used supercomputers and AI technology to map nonforest trees from, The launch was carried live by national broadcaster CCTV which then switched to computer animation to show its progress into, SpaceX is leading the charge to bring market forces into, Post the Definition of outer space to Facebook, Share the Definition of outer space on Twitter. [87], The local interstellar medium is a region of space within 100 parsecs (pc) of the Sun, which is of interest both for its proximity and for its interaction with the Solar System. [34] According to astronauts, like Don Pettit, space has a burned/metallic odor that clings to their suits and equipment, similar to the scent of an arc welding torch. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. [63], Geospace is populated by electrically charged particles at very low densities, the motions of which are controlled by the Earth's magnetic field. Noun. – Aerospace Engineering, Aviation News, Salary, Jobs and Museums", "Survival of Plant Seeds, Their UV Screens, and nptII DNA for 18 Months Outside the International Space Station", "How do we know when Voyager reaches interstellar space? [54] The energy of such particles is significantly diminished by the shielding provided by the walls of a spacecraft and can be further diminished by water containers and other barriers.The impact of the cosmic rays upon the shielding produces additional radiation that can affect the crew. It revealed the presence of the solar wind and performed the first fly-by of Venus, although contact was lost before reaching Venus. Once a satellite descends to 180 km (110 mi), it has only hours before it vaporizes in the atmosphere. How to use outer in a sentence. (VOY: "One Small Step") Sensors aboard Federation starships were designed to "register only those things they're designed to register," as such, all according to Spock, "space still contains infinite unknowns." He showed that the star system 61 Cygni had a parallax of just 0.31 arcseconds (compared to the modern value of 0.287″). As gas falls into the intergalactic medium from the voids, it heats up to temperatures of 105 K to 107 K,[2] which is high enough so that collisions between atoms have enough energy to cause the bound electrons to escape from the hydrogen nuclei; this is why the IGM is ionized. Outer space does not begin at a definite altitude above the Earth's surface. 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