The soil also con- veys and distributes the water over the field. In sprinkler irrigation the water is In Surface Irrigation, water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by the help of gravity. As a result it is very difficult to understand the hydraulics of surface irrigation. It is the most commonly used irrigation methods and is well suited to mild slopes as well as regular slopes. While it is still a common method of irrigation, it also requires an extraordinary amount of water, lacks in uniformity and is the most difficult to manage due to its dependence on soil properties and field topography. The common types of irrigation methods, along with their capabilities and limitations are covered in the following sections. Part 623 National Engineering Handbook Chapter 4 Surface Irrigation 4–iv (210–VI–NEH, September 2012) Table 4–1 General comparison of surface irrigation surface 4–10 methods Table 4–2 Average rooting depths selected crops in deep, 4–22 well-drained soils Today, this is still one of the most popular methods of crop irrigation. The term ‘surface irrigation’ refers to a broad class of irrigation methods in which water is distributed over the field by overland flow. Surface Irrigation: In this method water flows and spreads over the surface of the land. In surface irrigation the soil is the reservoir from which the plants draw the water they need. Types of Surface Irrigation Systems Surface Irrigation is an unchanged process and it is older than its recognition. The application of irrigation water where the entire surface of the soil is covered by ponded water. Types of Surface Irrigation Systems Surface irrigation systems can be classified into three major types: basin, border, and furrow systems. Surface Irrigation is a kind of irrigation where gravity works its best. Varied quantities of water are allowed on the fields at different times. Border method of irrigation is a method of surface flooding wherein the water is applied to the field divided into strips separated by parallel ridges (Fig. Basins range widely in size from only a few square feet (orchard crops) to a few hundred square feet. Hence, flow of water under surface irrigation comes under unsteady flow. Irrigation Methods Irrigation water may be applied to crops by flooding the field surface, by There may be no method of controlling water flow other than the topography of the land. Surface Irrigation Methods John T. Phelan and Wayne D. Criddle There are three general methods of applying irrigation water to the land. Furrow irrigation utilizes small channels or ditches between planted rows to convey water across a field. Early humans would have used this "low-tech" method of irrigating crops -- collect water in a bucket and pour it onto the fields. various irrigation systems to decide the merits and demerits of the potential alternates of irrigation system. Down there, the water really does get straight to where it's needed - the roots of the plant. Surface Irrigation; This type of irrigation relies on gravity flow to distribute water. Flood Irrigation (also called surface irrigation) uses the soil surface to flow water down the field from high to low areas. The basin system consists of level, diked areas that re-ceive undirected flow of water (Figure 1). Surface Methods. Throughout the world, this is the most commonly used type of irrigation process. A flow is introduced at one edge of the field and covers the field gradually. 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